City-An area with substantial inhabitation & a systematic scale of life.
Bio-region- A physically defined land area with its own biological environment.
Bio-regional city- Incorporates all forms of life including humans, animals, plants, insects etc, with unity & inter-dependence.
Patrick Geddes (1854-1932)was a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner. The father of modern day urban planning came to India in 1914, at the age of sixty. For the next eight years Geddes was based in the sub-continent, studying and writing about the culture the ecology of the Indian city. Patrick Geddes wrote nearly fifty town plans in India, some more than four or five pages long, others printed in more than a bulky volume. He explained this by saying--
"...in order to live we must be able to see the intertwined link between the natural and social sciences".
(1)Design and planning for people in place- https://bit.ly/2GrAa3p
(2)How Patrick Geddes re-connected man & nature- https://bit.ly/2Uga4VS